Chemical Formulas Of Common Substances

Chemical Formulas Of Common Substances

Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

All rights the millions.For some of these substances,certain common namesremain in everyday use.For example,calcium carbonate is betterknown as limestone,and sodium chloride is usually referred to simplyas table salt.And everyone recognizes dihydrogen monoxide by itspopular name,water.Unfortunately,common names usually give no information aboutchemical composition.To describe the atomic makeup of compounds,chemical formulas.In this chapter,you will be introduced to some of therules used to identify simple chemical compounds.of each kind in a chemical compound.For a molecular compound,thetained in a single molecule of the compound,as shown below for thehydrocarbon octane.(are molecular compounds com-CHEMICAL FORMULAS AND CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS7-1BJECTIVESof a chemical formula.Determine the formula of an ionic compound formedbetween two given ions.Using prefixes,name a binaryformula.Write the formula of a binarymolecular compound given itsname.C8H18there are 8 carbon atomsin a molecule of octane.Subscript indicates thatthere are 18 hydrogen atomsin a molecule of octane.Unlike a molecular compound,an ionic compound consists of a The chemical formula for an ionic compound represents one formulaunitthe simplest ratio of the compounds positive ions (cations) andits negative ions (anions).The chemical formula for aluminum sulfate,fate anions,is written as shown on page 204.NSTAwww.scilinks.orgCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

All rights reserved.Al2(SO4)3Subscript 2refers to2 aluminumatoms.Subscript 4refers to4 oxygenatoms insulfate ion.Subscript 3 refers toeverything inside parenthesesgiving 3 sulfate ions, witha total of 3 sulfur atomsand 12 oxygen atoms.CHEMICAL FORMULAS AND CHEMICAL COMPOUNDSMain-group elements1+2+3+lithium Limagnesium Mgaluminum Alpotassium Kcalcium Castrontium Sr123fluoride Foxide O2nitride N3chloride Clsulfide S2bromide Br-Block elements and others with multiple ions1+2+3+4+iron(III) Fecobalt(II) Co2vanadium(III) V3tin(IV) Sn4copper(II) Cu2iron(II) Felead(II) Pb2manganese(II) Mn2mercury(II) Hg2nickel(II) Ni2tin(II) Sn2vanadium(II) V2zinc Zn2TABLE 7-1Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

All rights reserved.CHAPTER 7SOLUTIONSAMPLE formulas for the binary ionic compounds formedbetween the following elements:a.potassium and iodined.aluminum and sulfurb.magnesium and chlorinee.aluminum and nitrogenc.sodium and sulfur2.Name the binary ionic compounds indicated by the a.PRACTICEions.The name of the cation is given first,followed by the name of the anion.For most simple ionic compounds,the ratio of the ions is notindicated in the compounds name because it is understood based onthe relative charges of the compounds ions.The naming of a simplebinary ionic compound is illustrated below.2.a.calcium bromideAl2O3Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

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chemical formulas of common substances
Chemical Names And Formulas
• Write the chemical names and formulas of common chemical compounds. ... All ions, of which some substances are made, have unique chemical names. The (
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7-1even when they combine with the same anion.Compare (a) lead(IV) oxide,,with (b) lead(II) oxide,PbO.(a)(b)Table 7-2 on page 210 lists some common polyatomic ions.All but oxyanionspolyatomic ions that contain oxygen.In several cases,two differentoxyanions are formed by the same two elements.Nitrogen and oxygen,for example,are combined in both NO.When naming com-pounds containing such oxyanions,the most common ion is given the-ate.The ion with one less oxygen atom is given the ending -ite.Sometimes two elements form more than two different oxyanions.Inthis case,an anion with one less oxygen than the -Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

All rights reserved.Write the formula and give the name for the compound formed by the ions CrWrite the symbols for the ions side by side.Write the cation first.Cross over the charges to give subscripts.Check the subscripts and write the formula.The subscripts are correct because they give charges of 1 .Thelargest common factor of the subscripts is 1,so the smallest whole-number ratio of the ionsis 1:3.The formula is therefore CrF.As Table 7-1 on page 205 shows,chromium formsmore than one ion.Therefore,the name of the 3Roman numeral indicating its charge.The compounds name is chromium(III) fluoride.SOLUTIONSAMPLE ) bromideFeO,iron(II) oxide,lead(II) chlorideHgS,mercury(II) sulfide,tin(II) fluoride,iron(III) oxide2.a.PRACTICECHAPTER 71+2+ammonium NHdimercury*Hg123acetate CH3carbonate CO32phosphate PO43chlorate ClO3dichromate Cr2O7hydrogen phosphate HPOcyanide CN(bicarbonate)hydrogen sulfate HSOhydroxide OHhypochlorite ClOnitrate NOnitrite NO2perchlorate ClO4TABLE 7-2SOLUTIONsodium iodidepotassium sulfideFeCrOPRACTICENaming Binary MolecularUnlike ionic compounds,molecular compounds are composed of individ-ual covalently bonded units,or molecules.Chemists use two nomencla-ture systems to name binary molecules.The newer system is the Stocksystem for naming molecular compounds,which requires an understand-ing of oxidation numbers.This system will be discussed in Section 7-2.The old system of naming molecular compounds is based on the useof prefixes.For example,the molecular compound CClchloride.The prefix ent in a single molecule of the compound.The two oxides of carbon,CO,are named carbon oxide,respectively.CHAPTER contributesmore than one atomName ofless-electronegativeelementRoot name of more-electronegative element

ideof atoms contributed by more-electronegativeelement FormulaPrefix-system nameOdinitrogen monoxideNOnitrogen monoxideNOnitrogen dioxideN2O3dinitrogen trioxideN2O4dinitrogen tetroxideN2O5dinitrogen pentoxideTABLE 7-4Binary Compounds of Nitrogen and OxygenGive the name for AsWrite the formula for oxygen difluoride.A molecule of the compound contains two arsenic atoms,so the first word in the name isarsenic.The five oxygen atoms are indicated by adding the prefix oxide.The complete name is diarsenic pentoxide.The first symbol in the formula is that for oxygen.Oxygen is first in the name because it is less electronegative than fluorine.Since there
Stoichiometry : study of quantitative relationship between Chemical Formulas and Chemical Equations.
That time the exam question asked me to draw the basic structure of a nucleotide and I drew the whole thing with chemical formulas and all
Stoichiometry : study of quantitative relationship between Chemical Formulas and Chemical Equations.
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Getting the hang of writing chemical formulas and their names :)
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